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1. Making Contour Drawings
When you make a contour drawing, your eye and hand must move at the same time. You must look at the object, not at your drawing. You must imagine that your pencil is touching the edge of the object as your eye follows the edge.
Don't let your eye get ahead of your hand. Also, don’t lift your pencil from the paper. When you move from one area to the next, let your pencil leave a trail. If you do lift your pencil accidentally, look down, place your pencil where you stopped, and continue.
a. To help you coordinate your eye-hand movement, try this: First, tape your paper to the table so it won’t slide around.
Then, hold a second pencil in your nondrawing hand and move it around the edges of the object. With your drawing hand, record the movement.
b. If you have trouble keeping your eyes from looking at the paper, ask a friend to hold a piece of stiff paper between your eyes and your drawing hand so the drawing paper is blocked from view. You might also place your drawing paper inside a large paper bag turned sideways. A third method is to put the object on a chair and place the chair on a table. When you are standing, the object should be at your eye level. Then, place your drawing paper on the table directly under the chair.
In this way you will be unable to see the paper easily.
c. When you draw without looking at the paper, your first sketches will look strange.
Don't be discouraged. The major purpose of blind contour drawing is to teach you to concentrate on directions and curves. The more you practice, the more accurate your drawings will become.
d. As you develop your skills, remember that in addition to edges, contours also define ridges. Notice the wrinkles you see at the joints of fingers and at a bent wrist or bent elbow.
Those wrinkles are curved lines. Draw them carefully; the lines you use to show these things will add the look of roundness to your drawing.
e. After you have made a few sketches, add pressure as you draw to vary the thickness and darkness of your lines. Some lines can be emphasized and some can be made less important through the right amount of pressure from your hand.
2. Making Gesture Drawings
Unlike contour drawings, which show an object's outline, gesture drawings show movement. They should have no outlines or details.
a. Using the side of a piece of un wrapped crayon or a pencil, make scribble lines that build up the shape of the object. Don’t use single lines that create stick figures.
b. Work very quickly. When drawing people, do the head, then the neck, and then fill in the body. Pay attention to the direction in which the body leans.
c. Next, scribble in the bulk of the legs and the position of the feet.
d. Finally, add the arms.
3. Drawing Calligraphic Lines with a Brush.
Mastering the technique of drawing with flowing, calligraphic lines takes practice. You will need a round watercolor brush and either watercolor paint or ink. First, practice making very thin lines.
a. Dip your brush in the ink or paint and wipe the brush slowly on the side of the ink bottle until the bristles form a point.
b. Hold the brush at the metal ferrule so the brush is vertical rather than slanted above the paper. Imagine that the brush is a pencil with a very sharp point-if you press down, you will break the point.
c. Touch the paper lightly with the tip of the brush and draw a line.
d. When you are able to control a thin line, you are ready to make calligraphic lines. Start with a thin line and gradually press the brush down to make the line thicker. Pull up again to make it thinner. Practice making lines that vary in thickness.
4. Using Shading Techniques: The following techniques help create shading values.
• Hatching: Use a series of fine parallel lines.
• Crosshatching: Use two or more intersecting sets of parallel lines.
• Blending: Use a smooth, gradual application of an increasingly dark value. Pencil lines may be blended.
• Stippling: Create shading with dots.
To be effective in forming the shaded areas, your lines and strokes must follow the form of the object. Use lines to show the surface of a flat surface. Let the lines run parallel to one edge of the surface. To show a curved surface, draw a series of parallel curved lines to give the illusion of roundness.
The lines should follow the curve of the object.
Lines or dots placed close together create dark values. Lines or dots spaced farther apart create lighter values. To show a gradual change from light to dark, begin with TECHNIQUE TIPS lines or dots far apart and bring them closer together.
5. Using Sighting Techniques: Sighting is a method that will help you determine proportions.
a. Hold a pencil vertically at arm's length in the direction of the object you are drawing. Close one eye and focus on the object you are going to measure.
b. Slide your thumb along the pencil until the height of the pencil above your thumb matches the height of the object.
c. Now, without moving your hold the pencil parallel to the widest part of the object. Com pare the height of the object with its width. You can deter mine the ratio of height to width by seeing how many times the smaller measure fits into the larger measure. This method can be applied either to different parts of the same object or to two or more different objects. Use one measurement as a base measurement and see how the other measurements relate to it.
6. Using a Viewing Frame: A viewing frame helps you to zero in on an area or object you in tend to draw. To make a viewing frame, do the following:
a. Cut a rectangular hole in a heavy sheet of paper.
b. Hold the frame at arm's length and look through it at your subject. Imagine that the opening represents your drawing paper.
c. You can decide how much of the subject you want to include in your drawing by moving the frame up, down, or sideways.
d. You can also move the frame closer or farther away to change the focus of your drawing.
7. Using a Ruler: There are times when you need to draw a crisp, straight line.
a. Hold the ruler with one hand and the pencil with the other.
b. Place the ruler where you wish to draw a straight line.
c. Hold the ruler with your thumb and first two fingers. Be careful that your fingers don’t stick out beyond the edge of the ruler.
d. Press heavily on the ruler so it won’t slide while you're drawing.
e. Hold the pencil lightly against the ruler.
f. Pull the pencil quickly and lightly along the edge of the ruler. The object is to keep the ruler from moving while the pencil moves along its edge.
8. Making a Grid for Enlarging
Sometimes you must take a small drawing and enlarge it. To do this, you must first measure the size that the large, finished drawing will be. Then, using proportional ratios, reduce that size to something you can work with.
a. For example: If you want to cover a wall 5 feet high and 10 feet wide, let 1 inch equal 1 foot. Then make a scale drawing that is 5 inches high and 10 inches wide. You may work either in inches or centimeters.
b. After you have completed your small drawing, draw vertical and horizontal grid lines 1 inch apart on the drawing. Number the squares.
c. On the wall, draw vertical and horizontal grid lines one foot apart.
d. Number the squares on the wall to match the squares on the paper and enlarge the plan by filling one square at a time.
9. Measuring Rectangles
Do you find it hard to create perfectly formed rectangles? Here is a way of getting the job done:
a. Make a light pencil dot near the long edge of a sheet of pa per. With a ruler, measure the exact distance between the dot and the edge. Make three more dots the same distance in from the edge.)
b. Line a ruler up along the dots.
Make a light pencil line running the length of the paper.
c. Turn the paper so that a short side is facing you. Make four pencil dots equally distant from the short edge. Connect these with a light pencil rule. Stop when you reach the first line you drew.
d. Do the same for the remaining two sides. Erase any lines that may extend beyond the box you have made.
e. Trace over the lines with your ruler and pencil. The box you have created will be a perfectly formed rectangle.
10. Mixing Paint to Change the Value of Color
You can better control the colors in your work when you mix your own paint. In mixing paints, treat opaque paints ( For example, tempera) differently from transparent paints ( For example, watercolors).
a. For light values of opaque paints. Add only a small amount of the hue to white.
The color can always be made stronger by adding more of the hue.
b. For dark values of opaque paints. Add a small amount of black to the hue. Never add the hue to black.
c. For light values of transparent paints. Thin a shaded area with water. This allows more of the white paper to show through.
d. For dark values of transparent paints. Carefully add a small amount of black to the hue.
11. Making Natural Earth Pigment Paints
Anywhere there is dirt, clay, and sand, you can find natural earth pigments.
a. Collect as many different kinds of earth colors as you can find.
b. Grind them as finely as possible. If you can, borrow a mortar and pestle from the science lab. Regardless of the method you use, your finished product will still be a little gritty. It won’t have the smooth texture of commercial pigment.
c. For the binder, use one part white glue to one part water.
Put a few spoons of pigment into a small container and add some of the binder. Experiment with different proportions of pigment and binder.
d. When you have found the best proportion, apply the mixture to paper with a variety of brushes. Don’t allow the brushes you use to dry before you wash them, because the glue will solidify.
e. Keep stirring your paint as you work to keep the pigment from settling. The pigment will keep indefinitely. Mix a fresh batch each time you paint, because the mixed paint is difficult to store for more than a few days.
12. Working with Watercolors
Here are some tips to control watercolor paints.
a. If you apply wet paint to damp paper, you create lines and shapes with soft edges.
b. If you apply wet paint to dry paper, you create lines and shapes with sharp, clear edges.
c. If you dip a dry brush into damp paint and then brush across dry paper, you achieve a fuzzy effect.
d. School watercolors come in semi-moist cakes. Before you use them, place a drop of water on each cake to let the paint soften. Watercolor paints are transparent. Notice the white paper through the paint. If you want a light value of a hue, dilute the paint with a large amount of water. If you want a bright hue, you must dissolve more pigment by swirling your brush around in the cake of paint until you have dissolved a great deal of paint.
The paint you apply to the paper can be as bright as the paint in the cake.
13. Cleaning a Paint Brush
Rinsing a paint brush under running water won’t clean it completely. Paint will remain inside the bristles and cause the brush to lose its shape. Use the following procedure to help your brushes last a long time.
a. Rinse the thick paint out of the brush under running water.
b. Don’t use hot water. Gently "paint" the brush over a cake of mild soap or dip it into a mild liquid detergent.
c. Gently scrub the brush in the palm of your hand to work the soap into the center of the brush. This will remove paint that you did not realize was still in the brush.
d. Rinse the brush under running water while you continue to scrub your palm.
e. Repeat steps b, c, and d.
f. When your brush is thoroughly rinsed, shape it into a point with your fingers.
g. Place the brush in a container with the bristles up so it will keep its shape as it dries.
14. Making a Stamp Print
A stamp print is an easy way to make repetitive designs. The following are a few suggestions for making a stamp and printing with it. You may develop some other ideas after reading these hints. Remember, printing reverses your design, so if you use letters, be certain to cut or carve them backward.
• Cut a simple design into the flat surface of a rubber eraser with a knife that has a fine, precision blade.
• Glue yarn to a bottle cap or a jar lid.
• Glue found objects to a piece of corrugated cardboard.
Make a design with paperclips, washers, nuts, leaves, feathers, or anything else you canfind. Whatever object you use should have a fairly flat surface. Make a handle for the block with masking tape.
• Cut shapes out of a piece of inner tube material. Glue the shapes to a piece of heavy cardboard.
There are several ways to apply ink or paint to a stamp:
• Roll water-base printing ink on the stamp with a soft brayer.
• Roll water-base printing ink on a plate and press the stamp into the ink.
• Apply tempera paint or school acrylic to the stamp with a bristle brush.
15. Working with Clay
To make your work with clay go smoothly, always do the following:
a. Dip one or two fingers in water.
b. Spread the moisture from your fingers over your palms.
Never dip your hands in water.
Too much moisture turns clay into mud.
16. Joining Clay
Use these methods for joining clay.
a. First, gather the materials you will need. These include clay, slip (a creamy mixture of clay and water), brush, a scoring tool (such as a fork), and clay tools.
b. Rough up or scratch the two surfaces to be joined.
c. Apply slip to one of the two surfaces using a brush or your fingers.
d. Gently press the two surfaces together so the slip oozes out of the joining seam.
e. Using clay tools and/or your fingers, smooth away the slip that has oozed out of the seam. You may wish to smooth out the seam as well, or you may wish to leave it for decorative purposes.
17. Making a Pinch Pot
To make a pot using the pinch method, do the following:
a. Make a ball of clay by rolling it between your palms.
b. Set it on the working surface and make a hole in the top by pushing both thumbs into the clay. Stop pushing before your thumbs reach the bottom.
c. Begin to pinch the walls between your thumb and fingers, rotating the pot as you pinch.
d. Continue pinching and shaping the walls of the pot until they are an even thickness and the pot is the desired shape.
18. Using the Coil Technique
Collect all the materials you will need. These include clay, a cloth covered board, slip and brush, scoring tool, small bowl of water, and pattern for a circular base.
a. Make a base by flattening a piece of clay to about 1/2 inch thick. Using the pattern, cut the base into a circle.
b. Begin a clay coil by shaping a small ball of clay into a long roll on the cloth-covered board until the roll is about 1/2 inch thick. Your hands should be damp so the clay remains damp.
c. Make a circle around the edge of the clay base with the roll of clay. Cut the ends on a diagonal and join them so the seam doesn’t show. Using scoring and slip, join this first coil to the base.
d. Make a second coil. If you want the pot to curve outward, place the second coil on the outer edge of the first coil.
Place coil on the inner edge for an inward curve. Use proper joining techniques for all coils.
Papier-mâché is a French term that means mashed paper. It refers to sculpting methods that use paper and liquid paste. The wet paper and paste material are molded over sup porting structures such as a wad of dry paper or crumpled foil. The molded paper dries to a hard finish.
Following are three basic methods for working with papier-mâché.
a. Shred newspaper, paper towels, or tissue paper into tiny pieces and soak them in water overnight. (Don’t use slick paper as it won’t soften.)
b. Mash the paper in a strainer to remove the water or wring it out in a piece of cloth.
c. Mix the mashed paper with prepared paste or white glue until the material is the consistency of soft clay. Use the mix ture to model small shapes.
d. When papier-mâché is dry, it can be sanded, and holes can be drilled through it.
a. Tear paper into strips.
b. Either dip the strips in a thick mixture of paste or rub paste on the strips with your fingers.
Decide which method works best for you.
c. Use wide strips to cover wide forms. Very thin strips will lie flat on a small shape.
d. If you don’t want the finished work to stick to the support structure, first cover the form with plastic wrap or a layer of wet newspaper strips. If you are going to remove the pa pier-mâché from the support structure, you need to apply 5-6 layers of strips. Rub your fingers over the strips so that no rough edges are left sticking up.
Change directions with each layer so that you can keep track of the number. If you are going to leave the paper mâché over the support structure, then two or three layers may be enough.
a. Brush or spread paste on a sheet of newspaper or newsprint. Lay a second sheet on top of the first and smooth out the layers. Add an other layer of paste and an other sheet of paper. Repeat this process until you have four or five layers of paper. This method is good for making drapery on a figure.
b. If you let the layers dry for a day until they are leathery, they can be cut and molded any way you wish. Newspaper strips dipped in the paste can be used to seal any cracks that may occur.
a. Dry newspaper can be wadded up and wrapped with string or tape.
b. Wire armatures can be padded with rags before the outside shell of papier-mâché is added.
c. Found materials such as boxes, tubes, and plastic bowls, can be arranged and taped together to form a base.
d. For large figures, a wooden frame covered with chicken wire makes a good support.
Push and pinch the wire into the shape you want.
20. Making a Paper Sculpture
Another name for paper sculpture is origami. The process originated in Japan and means "folding paper." Paper sculpture begins with a flat piece of paper. The paper is then curved or bent to produce more than a flat surface. Here are some ways to experiment with paper.
• Scoring. Place a square sheet of heavy construction paper on a flat surface. Position a ruler on the paper so that it’s close to the center and parallel to the sides. Holding the ruler in place, run the point of a knife or a pair of scissors along one of the ruler's edges.
Press down firmly but take care not to cut through the pa per. Gently crease the paper along the line you made. Hold your paper with the crease facing upward. You can also score curved lines, but you must do this with gradually bending curves or wide arcs. If you try to make a tight curve, such as a semicircle, the paper won’t give. For a tight curve you will have to make cuts to relieve the tension.
• Pleating. Take a piece of paper and fold it 1 inch from the edge. Then fold the paper in the other direction. Continue folding back and forth.
• Curling. Hold one end of a long strip of paper with the thumb and forefinger of one hand. At a point right below where you are holding the strip, grip it lightly between the side of a pencil and the thumb of your other hand. In a quick motion, run the pencil along the strip. It will cause the strip to curl back on itself.
Don't apply too much pres sure, or the strip will tear.
21. Making Paper
Papermaking is a process in which fibers are broken down and reformed as a sheet. In order to make paper, collect all the materials you will need. These include a food blender, two matching stretcher frames approximately 9 x 12 inches each, a rustproof window screen slightly larger than the stretchers, staple gun, duct tape, Handi Wipes towels, a large pan 5 to 8 inches deep, newspapers, assorted papers, and water.
a. Make the mold by stretching the screen over the frame, stapling it at the edges, and covering the rough edges with duct tape. The second frame is the deckle, the frame that keeps the pulp in place on the mold.
b. Tear paper into 1-inch squares. Put 4 cups water and 1/2 cup paper scraps into the blender and blend for several minutes until the mixture is the consistency of watery cooked oatmeal.
c. Pour pulp into pan. Continue making pulp until there is about 4 inches of pulp in the pan. Additional water may be added to aid in the papermaking process.
d. Make a pad of newspapers 1/4 inch thick. Unfold Handi Wipes towels and lay one on the pad; this is the blotter.
e. Align deckle on top of mold.
Stir pulp to suspend paper fibers. Scoop mold and deckle under surface of water and shake to align fibers. Lift to drain excess water.
f. Remove the deckle and flip the mold and pulp onto the blotter, pulp side down against the Handi Wipes towel. Blot back of molds with a sponge to remove excess water and to compress the fibers. Remove the mold, using a rocking motion.
g. Lay another Handi Wipes towel on top of the sheet of paper and add more newspapers.
Repeat the layering process.
h. Let paper dry slowly for 1-3 days. When dry, peel off the Handi Wipes.
i. To clean up, drain pulp through the mold or a sieve.
Squeeze excess water from pulp and save pulp in a plastic bag for one to three days or discard it.
22. Basic Embroidery Stitches
The charts below and on the next page show the most common embroidery stitches.
23. Weaving Techniques
To make a cardboard loom, gather the materials you will need.
They include cardboard, ruler, pencil, scissors, strong, thin yarn for warp, various yarns and fibers for weft, tapestry needle, comb, and dowel.
a. Measure and cut notches 1/4 inch apart and 1/2 inch deep on opposite sides of the card board.
b. Tape warp thread to back of loom. Bring it to the front through the top left notch. Pull it down to the bottom of the loom and pass it through the bottom left notch to the back.
Move one notch to the right and continue until you reach the last notch. Then tape the end of the warp thread to the back.
c. Start to weave at the bottom of the loom, using a thin yarn. The weft yarns are the horizontal yarns; the easiest way to pull the weft yarn through the warp threads is to use an over-one under-one motion. At the end of the row, reverse directions.
d. Don’t pull the weft threads too tight. Let them balloon, or curve slightly upward.
e. After weaving several rows, pack the weft threads with a comb. The tighter the weave, the stronger it will be.
f. After there is about 1 inch of tight weave, begin varying weave and materials. End the process with another inch of thin, tight weave.
g. Before removing the fabric from the loom, weave in the loose ends. Cut the warp threads from the loom carefully and tie two at a time so they won’t unravel.
h. Tie or sew the finished fabric to a dowel.
24. Making a Coiled Basket
Mastering the technique of making a coiled basket takes practice. You will need core material (such as heavy cord), weft wrapping materials (such as yarns and fibers), a tapestry needle, scissors, and tape.
Coiling is a stitching technique in which the continuous coils of the core material are stitched together with a binding material called the weft. The first time you try this your binding and stitches probably won’t look neat. Undo the work and begin again. You want to cover the core material completely, and all your weft binding and stitches must be even and tight.
a. Trim the end of the core so it tapers. Thread the tapestry needle with a 3-foot length of weft. Using the loose weft end, begin to wind it around the core starting about 2 inches from the end. Overlap the end as you wind to anchor it. Wind the weft to about 1/2 inch from the tapered end of the core.
b. Bend the core, catch the tapered end, and make a loop.
c. Continue winding for about 2 inches, being sure that the tapered core is attached securely to the solid section of core material. Push the tapes try needle through the center of the loop.
d. Bend the core to form a coil and bring the weft between the core and the coil. Begin winding the weft around the core from front to back.
You are now ready to begin the Lazy stitch.
e. Wind the weft around the core from front to back four times.
Then, bringing the weft from behind and over the core, push the needle into the center of the coil. Pull tightly and hold. Continue to wrap the weft four times around the core and pull the fifth stitch into the center until you complete two coils. Hold them flat between your fingers while you work.
f. As the coiling progresses, you may wrap the weft more than four times between stitches.
After the first two coils, you will no longer bring the stitch back to the center; just take it over two coils. Always insert the needle from the front.
This way notice exactly where you are placing the needle. If you want to create a pattern of long stitches, this is essential.
g. Hold the coil with your left hand with the core material coming from the left, and wind the weft with your right hand so you don’t tangle it with the core. If you are left-handed, reverse the process. Always pull the weft very tight.
h. You will need to splice, or in visibly join, the ends of separate materials. To splice the core, taper the cut on the old and the new piece. Before working the weft, secure the spliced ends of the core by wrapping them with sewing thread or tape. Always hold the spliced area carefully until it’s wrapped with the weft. Splice the weft during the wrapping, not during the stitching. Hold the tail ends of the old and the new weft together against the core as shown.
Wrap the new weft at least once before making a long stitch.
i. When the base is the desired size, it’s time to begin making the sides of the basket. If the side is to be perpendicular to the base, lay the first foundation coil directly on top of the last coil. If you want the basket to curve outward, place each new coil on the outer edge of the one below. To make an in ward curve, place each coil on the inner edge of the previous coil. Use pressure from the nonstitching hand to keep the coils in place.
j. The best way to finish the basket is to taper the core and make several stitches around the last coil and the tapered coil. Then run the needle back through the wrapping stitches for about an inch and pull the weft thread through. Cut off the excess weft.
k. If you want to make a handle, simply wrap the end of the core until it’s as long as you wish.
Then attach it to the other side of the top of the basket following the instructions from Step j.
25. Making a Tissue Paper Collage
For your first experience with tissue, make a free design with the tissue colors. Start with the lightest colors of tissue first and save the darkest for last. It’s difficult to change the color of dark tissue by overlapping it with other colors. If one area becomes too dark, you might cut out a piece of white paper, glue it over the dark area carefully, and apply new colors over the white area.
a. Apply a coat of adhesive to the area where you wish to place the tissue.
b. Place the tissue down carefully over the wet area.
Don't let your fingers get wet.
c. Then add another coat of adhesive over the tissue. If your brush picks up any color from the wet tissue, rinse your brush in water and let it dry before using it again.
d. Experiment by overlapping colors. Allow the tissue to wrinkle to create textures as you apply it. Be sure that all the loose edges of tissue are glued down.
26. Making a Mat
You can add appeal to an art work by making a mat, using the following steps.
a. Gather the materials you will need. These include a metal rule, a pencil, mat board, card board backing, a sheet of heavy cardboard to protect your work surface, a mat knife with a sharp blade, and wide masking tape.
b. Wash your hands. Mat board should be kept very clean.
c. Measure the height and width of the work to be matted.
Decide how large a border you want for your work. (A border of approximately 2 1/2 inches on three sides with 3 inches on the bottom is aesthetically pleasing.) Your work will be behind the window you will cut.
d. Plan for the opening, or window, to be 1/4 inch smaller on all sides than the size of your work.
For example, if your work measures 9 by 12 inches, the mat window should measure 8 1/2 inches (9 inches minus 1/4 inch times two) by 11 1/2 inches (12 inches minus 1/4 inch times two.) Using your metal rule and pencil, lightly draw your window rectangle on the back of the board 2 1/2 inches from the top and left edge of the mat. Add a 2 1/2-inch border to the right of the window and a 3-inch border to the bottom, lightly drawing cut ting guidelines.
Note: If you are working with metric measurements, the window should overlap your work by 0.5 cm (centimeters) on all sides. Therefore, if your work measures 24 by 30 cm, the mat window measures 23 cm (24_[2 x 0.5]) by 29 cm (30 _[2 _ 0.5]).
e. Place the sheet of heavy, protective cardboard on your work surface. Place the mat board, pencil marks up, over the card board. Holding the metal rule firmly in place, score the first line with your knife. Always place the metal rule so that your blade is on the inside of the frame. () In case you make an error you will cut into the window hole or the extra mat that is not used for the frame. Don’t try to cut through the board with one stroke. By the third or fourth stroke, you should be able to cut through the board easily.
f. Working in the same fashion, score and cut through the board along all the window lines. Be careful not to go beyond the lines. Remove the window.
g. Cut a cardboard backing for your artwork that is slightly smaller than the overall size of your mat. Using a piece of broad masking tape, hinge the back of the mat to the backing.
Position your artwork between the backing and the mat and attach it with tape. Anchor the frame to the cardboard with a few pieces of rolled tape.
27. Mounting a Two Dimensional Work Mounting pictures that you make gives them a professional look. To mount a work, do the following:
a. Gather the materials you will need. These include a yard stick, a pencil, poster board, a knife with a very sharp blade, a sheet of newspaper, and rubber cement.
b. Measure the height and width of the work to be mounted. Decide how large a border you want around the work. Plan your mount size using the work's measurements. To end up with a 3-inch border, For example, make your mount 6 inches wider and higher than your work. Record the measurements for your mount.
c. Using your yardstick and pencil, lightly draw your mount rectangle on the back of the poster board. Measure from the edges of the poster board.
If you have a large paper cutter available, you may use it to cut your mount.
d. Place the sheet of heavy card board on your work surface.
Place the poster board, pencil marks up, over the cardboard.
Holding the yardstick firmly in place along one line, score the line with your knife. Don’t try to cut through the board with one stroke. By the third try, you should be able to cut through the board.
e. Place the artwork on the mount.
Using the yardstick, center the work. Mark each corner with a dot.
f. Place the artwork, face down, on a sheet of newspaper. Coat the back of the work with rubber cement. (Safety Note: Always use rubber cement in a room with plenty of ventilation.) If your mount is to be permanent, skip to Step h.
g. Line up the corners of your work with the dots on the mounting board. Smooth the work into place. Skip to Step i.
h. After coating the back of your artwork, coat the poster board with rubber cement. Be careful not to add cement to the border area. Have a partner hold your artwork in the air by the two top corners. Once the two glued surfaces meet, you won’t be able to change the position of the work. Grasp the lower two corners. Carefully lower the work to the mounting board. Line up the two corners with the bottom dots. Little by little, lower the work into place (). Press it smooth.
i. To remove any excess cement, create a small ball of dry rubber cement. Use the ball of rubber cement to pick up excess cement.
28. Working with Glue
When applying glue, always start at the center of the surface you are coating and work outward.
• When gluing papers together don't use a lot of glue, just a dot will do. Use dots in the corners and along the edges.
Press the two surfaces together. Keep dots at least 1/2 inch in from the edge of your paper.
• Handle a glued surface care fully with only your fingertips.
Make sure your hands are clean before pressing the glued surface into place.
• Note: The glue should be as thin as possible. Thick or beaded glue will create ridges on your work.
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