Cuts, Sizes, Treatments, and Forms of Wood
(Wood and Carpentry as Related to Building and Construction Materials)

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a/d: air-dried

air-dried: a/d; designating lumber stacked out of doors so that air circulates between boards to remove moisture


batten: sawed strip of wood, especially used as seam or fastener

beam: long, thick piece of lumber, used especially as support for roof

bevel siding: siding cut with sloping surface at edge

board: milled, sawed piece of wood up to 2 inches (5.1 cm) thick and 2 or more inches wide

board toot: standard measure of lumber, equal to 1 x 12x 12 inches or 144 cubic inches


caning: slender, flexible wood stems split into narrow strands and woven together, especially for chairs

ceiling board: cut board used in ceilings

clapboard: narrow board thicker at one edge, used for outside walls; weatherboard

close-grained: designating wood having fine, compact grain

construction wood: dimension lumber

cork: light, thick, soft, elastic bark of cork oak tree

cut: amount of wood; style in which wood is sawed


decking: construction boards for exterior use

dimension lumber usually: softwood lumber used for framing or as sheathing

dowel: solid, cylindrical rod of wood

dressed size: dimensions of lumber after drying and planing

drop siding: siding with tongue-and-groove, rabbeted, or shiplap joint; matched siding


edge-glued: designating flat-edged lumber bonded by gluing

edge-matched: designating lumber with tongue-and-groove edges

end-matched: designating lumber with tongue-and-groove ends

excelsior: fine, curled wood shavings that form resilient mass, used for packing

exterior plywood usually: rough-grade plywood sheets with exterior glue, used under finishing materials


fencing: long, thin posts or rails used to make fences

finish lumber: high-quality softwood lumber to be left natural or stained for appearance

flat-grained: designating wood having smooth, consistent grain

flooring: long strips of tongue-and-groove finishing lumber, used for flooring

framing: softwood construction lumber used for skeletal frame of structure

furring strips: narrow, unfinished wood strips attached to masonry or concrete as base for finishing material


grading: standardized system of rating and marking wood to indicate quality

grape stakes: thick, unfinished posts used to support vines

green lumber: undried lumber


hardwood: lumber made from the wood of deciduous trees, used primarily for trim, finishing, and built-ins

heartwood: mature wood at center of tree


interior finish: material used to cover interior walls and ceiling surfaces


jambs: strips used as side frame of door or window


k/d: kiln-dried

kiln-dried: kid designating lumber dried in kiln using regulated steam and hot air

knotty: designating lumber with cross-grained, rounded areas, or knots, formed by lump where branch grew out of tree trunk


lath: thin, narrow strips nailed to two-by-fours and rafters as foundation for plaster, tiles, and finishing boards

lauan: Philippine mahogany, in trade usage

log: long section of tree trunk or thick branch of felled tree to be cut and milled into lumber

louver door: door with overlapping, horizontal slats

lumber: timber sawed and milled into standard size beams, planks, and boards

lumber sizing: standard sizes of lumber, in inches: 1x2, 10, 1x4, 1x5, 1x6, 1x8, 1x10, 1x12, 2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 2x6, 2x8, 2x10, 2x12, 3x3, 4x4, 4x8,4x12


matched siding: drop siding

milling: cutting, shaping, and shaving of lumber and wood products on large scale in manufacturing plant

mixed-grain: designating wood with both closed and open grains

molding: shaped strip of wood used to finish or decorate walls astragal, base, batten, bead casing saddle, chair rail, comer guard, cove, crown, full round, half round, handrail, lattice, mantel, nose and cove, ogee, oval, picture frame, pilaster, quarter round, round edge, scalloped, sprung cove, stop, threshold, and window stool



open-grained: designating wood having irregularly patterned grain, usually wide


paneling: broad, flat sections of wood from which panels are cut

parquet: flooring squares in which grains of adjacent squares run at right angles

partition: large sheet of wood or other material used to divide interior areas

pinoleum: fine wooden sticks, stitched together as blinds

plank: long, broad, thick board

plywood: thin sheet of wood made by gluing and pressing together layers, often with grains at right angles; grades: AB, ACX, AD

plywood circle: round plywood sheet

plywood sizingstandard sizes of plywood: 4x8 feet or 4x10 feet by 1/4, 318,112, 5/8, 3/4, or 1 inch thick

pole: long, slender piece of wood, usually cylindrical

post: thick square or cylindrical beam section used in upright position

pressure-treated: designating wood with resin compressed under great heat to increase hardness and resistance to moisture and decay

puncheon: short post, used upright in framing



rabbeted: designating board or plank with groove cut in edge to accept another piece of wood to form joint

rattanslender, tough stem of palm tree, used in furniture

reed fencing: thick grass stalks plaited into fence

roofing: rafter beams or plywood sheets used in roof frame; exterior material, such as shingles or shake, used on roof

rush: round, pliant stem of certain marsh grasses, used in thatch roofs, furniture, and baskets


sapwood: light-colored, living wood layer between heartwood and bark

seasoning: aging and drying process that matures lumber to improve its workability

sen: Oriental ash, in trade usage

shake: long shingle split directly from log

sheathing: layer of boards that covers roof rafters or outside wall studs

sheeting: broad pieces of wood used to cover a surface

shelving: thin, flat section of board to be fixed at right angles to wall

shingle: thin, wedge-shaped piece of wood to be laid in overlapping rows over roof or wall sheathing

shiplap: boards or siding rabbeted along edge to overlap and form joint

shutter: louvered window covering

siding: materials applied over wall sheathing as finished surface: hardboard, lap, metal, plastic, plywood

siding shingle: shingle used over wall sheathing

slat: thin, narrow wood strip

softwood: lumber made from the wood of evergreen trees, used primarily for framing, construction, and some finishing

split: flexible strip of wood or wood stem used in baskets or furniture

stake: thin length of wood pointed at one end

stock: tree trunk

stud: boards, especially 2x4's, used in upright position as framing to which sheathing, panels, or siding are nailed


thatch: rushes or palm leaves used as roofing

timber: heavy, dressed beam, usually 5 inches (12.7 cm) or more in least dimension

tongue-and-groove: designating lumber, especially paneling and flooring, in which boards interlock along edges

treatment: aging, drying, or seasoning done to improve quality of wood

trim: finished interior and exterior moldings

two-by-four: most common board used in framing, being 2 inches by 4 inches



veneer: thin sheets of wood assembled in layers into plywood

vertical-grained: designating lumber with grain running lengthwise


walling: sheathing for walls

weatherboard: clapboard

weatherizing: treatment of exterior finish wood to conserve heat and resist water

wicker: pliant twigs or rods plaited together into chairs or baskets

windows: boards framed into windows

wood: hard fibrous substance beneath tree bark, cut and prepared as timber or lumber

woodwork: interior moldings, doors, windows, and stairs


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modified: Sunday, 2020-05-03 9:20 PST